Pediatric Neurosurgery

Pediatric Neurosurgery

There are many health conditions that can affect a child’s brain and nervous system. Some are congenital; others develop as the child develops, and yet others occur as a consequence of skull and brain damage.

A pediatric surgeon will choose the most conservative but successful way to treat a brain condition for each patient. Sometimes, that approach will incorporate neurosurgery.
Pediatric neurosurgical procedures can be intensive or minimally invasive. As surgical methods and other therapies improve, novel neurosurgery procedures become less risky and less invasive.


When medication isn’t enough, a number of different surgical options may help alleviate a child’s seizures.

The most frequent procedure involves removing the region of the brain generating the seizures or disconnecting specific nerve pathways that propagate the seizure signals. For epilepsy, doctors provide deep brain stimulation and laser ablation treatment a less invasive surgical procedure that involves implanting a vagus nerve stimulation device in a patient’s chest, similar to a pacemaker, and sending pulses that reduce seizures is also used to treat this condition.

Spasticity and Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy may cause muscular weakness, poor motor control, tremor, or rigidity of the arms or legs in a child.

Pediatric neurosurgeons have been at the forefront of treating these symptoms,by using an intrathecal pump that delivers low-dose medication to the spinal cord and brain, causing the muscles to relax. Other surgical procedures include selective and non-selective dorsal rhizotomy, which involves severing sensory nerve fibers in the spinal cord to balance the information delivered to the muscles about flexibility and stiffness.


In treating complicated multicystic hydrocephalus, a disorder characterized by an excess of cerebrospinal fluid in some areas of the brain. To treat this condition a valve that is implanted in the brain and drains fluid, and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy, which involves making a small hole in the wall of the third ventricle, allowing fluid to move out of the blocked ventricle and eliminating the need for a valve.

Brain and spinal cord tumors

Brain and spine cancers such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, meningiomas, and pituitary gland tumors, are often removed endoscopically. Diagnosis and removal of a tumor are often done during the same procedure to increase the chances for a cure. To eradicate a tumor, surgery may be performed in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiation treatment.


At birth, a baby’s skull bones are still developing and fusing together, a process that takes about a year. Bones that fuse too soon or too late might cause a craniofacial condition, which can cause brain injury. The abnormalities may be corrected surgically by removing, replacing, or recontouring sections of the skull.

Birth Defects

Birth defects of the head and spine can include: encephaloceles, which occur when a baby is born with a portion of his or her brain protruding from the skull; a Chiari malformation, which occurs when brain tissue extends into the spinal canal; syringomyelia, which occurs when a cyst or hole forms in the spinal cord; spina bifida, which occurs when the spinal bones do not close properly; and a tethered spinal cord. Experienced pediatric neurosurgeons are skilled in a variety of surgical methods to repair and enhance a wide range of congenital birth abnormalities, including the most unusual situations.

Brain Cysts

Cysts in the brain, such as a dermoid or arachnoid cyst, are tumor-like spheres filled with liquid. Surgery can be used to remove all or part of a cyst so that vital functions of the brain are not impaired.

Head/Spinal Cord Trauma and Concussion

A traumatic injury to the head or spine needs rapid medical attention and may necessitate surgery such as surgical decompression, craniotomy, surgical drainage, surgical debridement and evacuation, surgical elevation, and decompressive craniectomy with duraplasty.

Treatment for pediatric neurological disorders

The following are some of the most frequent pediatric neurosurgical procedures and the diseases they treat:

Minimally invasive surgery: In the majority of pediatric patients, pediatric neurosurgeons are able to use minimally invasive techniques for surgery, resulting in smaller incisions, less discomfort after surgery, less scarring, and a speedier recovery. Endoscopic treatments for the treatment of hydrocephalus, intracranial cysts, some brain tumors, and various spinal problems are performed by experienced doctors with outstanding ability.

Brain tumor resection or debulking
Debulking is the surgical removal of the portion of a tumor that can be safely removed. The ultimate objective of this surgery is to lessen the amount of pressure on the brain caused by the tumor. During this procedure, a pediatric neurosurgeon will leave the inoperable part of the tumor undisturbed, to prevent injury to the brain.

A tumor near the base of the skull or at the top of the spine is often accessible via the nose and sinuses. In such circumstances, neurosurgeons would do an endonasal endoscopy, which is a less invasive surgical technique. An endoscope is used to remove the tumor via the nose and sinuses during this treatment.

Embolization or microvascular clipping to treat a cerebral aneurysm
An aneurysm occurs when a blood artery portion fills with blood and expands like a balloon. The aneurysm may rupture at some moment. A pediatric neurosurgeon may use a preventive approach by obstructing blood flow to the aneurysm, preventing it from rupture. This is referred to as embolization. Alternatively, the neurosurgeon might remove the artery supplying blood to the damaged blood vessel. This is referred to as microvascular cutting.

Surgical treatment for a nerve injury or disorder
An injured nerve can limit the functionality of the body part that this nerve controls. A pediatric neurosurgeon may sometimes restore the injured nerve. A rhizotomy may be performed by a neurosurgeon when a nerve disease produces involuntary muscular spasms. Simply put, this procedure involves isolating or finding the nerve causing the spasms and cutting it. To locate the affected nerve, the surgeon will employ electrical stimulation.

Dr. Adwait Prakash is an expert in Pediatric Neurosurgery practicing in Indore.

To book your appointment Call: 8889588832.